Thursday, December 8, 2011

National Guidelines on Environmental Health Practice in Nigeria

By Environmental Health Officers Registration Council of Nigeria 2007

1.0 Preamble
1.1 One will recall with nostalgia during the colonial and post colonial era, the efforts at keeping our environment clean through social effort in self-determination, self motivation and self reliance with the community concept of full participation. These efforts were spearheaded by the then Sanitary Inspector who moved from house to house enforcing Environmental Health (EH) services and EH practice has deteriorated in Nigeria from the standard set by the British colonial masters to where we are today due to the general neglect of the sub-sector by both succeeding governments and the general society over the years.

1.2 It is also on record that the Sanitary Inspectors now known as Environmental Health Officers (EHO) were the major motivators who moved from house-to-house to inspect premises, educate household members on sanitation and hygiene matters, caused nuisances to be abated and also enforced necessary environmental health related laws and regulations.

1.3 The combined efforts of the household and community members, supported by government in those days yieled huge success. Some of these were the eradication of diseases like yaws in 1930s and small pox in the 70s, the drastic reduction of malaria associated morbidity and mortality due to the emphases on elimination of possible mosquito breeding sites.

1.4 The recognition and powers granted the sanitary inspectors (now EHOs) in those days were the sole motivating factor that propelled them to work assiduously to monitor and maintain the integrity of our environment and promote public health and safety. The draw-back on environmental health structures of those days just like what happened in the Roman Empire before the industrial revolution brought us to where we are today. In essence, the call for reintroduction of sanitary inspection and sanitary inspectors in Nigeria today lend credence to the enormous contribution of Sanitary Inspectors to public healthy and environmental integrity.

1.5 The issue now is what went wrong and what can be done to rectify the situation and bring back the glory of EH in Nigeria.

1.6 First, by providence, EH has been recognized as a profession in Nigeria through an Act of parliament the Environmental Health Officers (Registration etc) Act 11 of 2002. The Environmental Health Officers Registration Council of Nigeria has been established to regulate the profession. What needs to be done is for all Nigerians to adopt EH consciousness and fall back on what was done right in those days, which worked well for our public health and environmental integrity.

1.7 Second, EH services must been seen as public good that need to be protected and the practice guided to enable it contribute to national development. The National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy has outlined the need to empower people, promote private enterprise and change the way people do their work to reduce poverty and inequality. A good platform for achieving this is a disciplined environmental health culture, which provides the opportunity for optimal health and aesthetic environment.

1.8 Third, government should take the leadership role by providing enabling environment and necessary regulations and laws to drive the process. all over the world, government has taken bold steps to put structures for orderly conduct and practice of environmental health services. The present government has taken the first step by enacting the Environmental Health Officer Registration Act. What need to done further is for government to enact and Environmental Health Control and Enforcement Act to provide legal instrument for EH practice; an instrument to enable the practitioners which has been defined to mean persons trained and registered to carry out EH functions, to do their work effectively.

1.9 Last, the practitioners must rise to the challenge and justify the call by Nigerians for the reintroduction of sanitary inspector. What this means is that the practitioners must see themselves as agents of change for the overall benefit of Nigerians and sustainable development
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1.10 This practice guidelines is aimed at providing basic principles and step-by-step procedure for conducting environmental health services in Nigeria. It is our hope that the practitioners will see the document as a daily companion to provide working guide for their functions. The guidelines are issued by EHORECON in pursuance to applicable sections if Act 11 of 2002, and EHPR 2007 and other applicable laws and regulations.

2.0 Introduction

2.1 Environmental Health (EH) has been defined as the control of all factors in man’s physical environment which exercise, or may exercise, a deleterious effect on his physical development, health or survival. Environmental health has been defined recently as comprising of those aspects of human health, including quality of life, which is determined by physical, biological, chemical, social and physiological factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing, correcting, controlling and preventing these factors that can potentially affect, adversely the health of present and future generations. Environmental health programmes are organized community efforts to monitor and modify man environment relationships in the interest of better health.

2.2 Some functions of EH are: sanitation inspection of premises, control of communicable diseases, disposal of waste i.e. garbage, sewage and gaseous wastes including such special wastes like toxic and hazardous substances, potable water supply, good and sanitary housing condition, food sanitation, personal hygiene, pest and rodents control, air pollution control and control of noise pollution, etc.

2.3 Environmental health has continued to play a major role in disease prevention, control and the substance of environmental integrity. Therefore as a broad concept in public health it is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through organized efforts of the society. The outcome of environmental health organization is the prevention, detection and control of environmental hazards, which affect human health.

2.4 The world authority on health matters- the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified and listed EH functions to include:
i. Waste management
ii. Food hygiene and control
iii. Pest and vector control
iv. Environmental health control of housing and sanitation
v. Epidemiological investigation and control
vi. Air quality management
vii. Occupational health and safety
viii. Water resources management and sanitation
ix. Noise control
x. Protection of recreational environment
xi. Radiation control and health
xii. Control of frontiers, air and sea ports and border crossing
xiii. Pollution control and abatement
xiv. Educational activities (health promotion and education)
xv. Promotion and enforcement of environmental health quality standards
xvi. Collaborative efforts to study impact assessment. (EHIA).

2.5 Before we degenerated to the level we are, EH practitioners were performing all the functions listed and the results were obvious. It is true that the performance of these duties has changed over the years due to prevailing circumstances, environmental factors, and the level of environmental pollutants due to increase population, increase economic activities and industrialization.

2.6 As these changes occur, there is need to regulate the practice ad provide necessary guidelines for the practitioners.

2.7 Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to Register Environmental Health Officers, licensed operators of Environmental Health services to ensure a high standard of hygiene and sanitation their service delivery. Specifically the objectives of these guidelines are to:
i. List the functions of EH
ii. Provide procedures on how to carry out the listed functions
iii. State who should carry out the functions listed.

2.8 Scope and Application

2.8.1 The document applies to all registered Environmental Health Officers, licensed operators and providers of environmental health services as well as the general public.

2.8.2 In these guidelines, references to specify requirements under the relevant legislations are made. Failure to comply with these requirements shall constitute an offence under the relevant laws and regulations.

2.8.3 These guidelines are not a law but intended to provide operators with additional information and guidance on their day-to-day operation to achieve the objectives for which environmental health profession is established.

2.9 Responsibility
It is the responsibility of the members of the profession, licensed operators and providers of environmental health services to ensure that:
a. The premises of its operation is clean and hygienic
b. The services rendered to clients meet minimum professional standard required as specified in the professional code of ethics.
c. Persons employed for the operation, management and supervision of their activities have adequate qualifications, experience and training
d. Persons employed are medically examined and fit; and
e. Measures are taken to preserve the health and well-being if employees and integrity of the environment
f. Ideas are shared ad exchanged for the promotion of the profession. For this purpose every member and licensed operator shall belong to the Environmental Health Practitioners Association of Nigeria (EHPAN) and a learned society approved by the council.
g. Ensure documentary evidence of services rendered using the form in appendix or as shall be designed and circulated from time to time.
h. Supply needed data into the National Environmental Health Information Management System (EHIMS)

2.10 The council hopes that the guidelines will service as reference material to guide best practice and remove any ambiguity in these functional and operational areas, and further empowers the practitioners to perform their functions effectively.

2.11 The foregoing sets out the framework for the national EH practice guidelines, in Nigeria. The Guidelines are provided for each of the functions listed and establishes minimum requirements for every operator in the sub-sector.

3.0 Waste Management

3.1 Introduction

3.1.1 A lot has been written about the problem of refuse disposal and sewage disposal in Nigeria. This is one problem that is noticed by every one in the society especially in the urban areas. The problem is due to the failure of the various city authorities to plan and manage the mounting refuse heaps in various street comers.

3.1.2 Most drainage channels are blocked by refuse leading to flooding and providing stagnant water, which breed mosquitoes. Refuse heaps in our urban centres blithe the aesthetic nature of our otherwise beautiful cities.

3.1.3 Rodents and other disease causing germs including such reptiles as snakes find home as well as sources of food in these heaps.

3.1.4 The refuse and other wastes generated are only moved away from our consciousness but not disposed in a manner as to promote public health. The wastes most of the time are burned at the dumpsites releasing toxic and hazardous substances such as dioxins and furans, which are cancer causing agents into the atmosphere.

3.2 Solid Waste

3.2.1 Collection at household/premises level. Waste collection at point of generation still remains a major problem in our communities. Waste collection at this level shall conform to the following.

3.2.2 All premises shall be swept and kept clean all times by the occupier and residues shall be in a sanitary manner.

3.2.3 All solid waste matter shall be collected and stored in a sanitary dustbin and or polythene bags with appropriate colour coding as described in National Environmental Health Practice Regulation (NEHPR 2007)

Appendix I

3.2.4 Collection: Only licensed solid waste collection companies shall engage in solid waste collection using appropriate vehicle clearly marked as described in the NEHPR 2007.

3.2.5 Every operator applying for waste collection licence shall specify the class of licence required as in appendix 2. Operators requiring a class A licence shall in addition show evidence or either a subsisting contract with an appropriate waste disposal facility operator or own a facility for the final disposal of the waste. Every operator shall maintain a minimum waste collection materials and equipment in appendix 3.

3.2.6 Transportation of solid waste to disposal facilities or transfer station shall be carried out with appropriate vehicle in a manner that will eliminate nuisance including spilling on the streets etc. vehicles to be used for waste transportation shall be covered in such a way as to prevent spilling and shall be clearly marked as described in the NEHPR 2007, appendix 4.

3.2.7 Disposal of solid waste shall be in an approved facility, bearing in mind the principle of waste separations. No waste shall e disposed in a facility that is not approved for the type of waste in question. Waste disposal facilities shall be constructed, maintained and run in a manner that will prevent hazards of health, environment including pollution of surface and ground water. Only licensed operators shall engage in the management of waste disposal facilities. All waste disposal facility owners shall fall into one of the categories in appendix 5. For this purpose, waste collectors and waste disposal facility operators shall apply to the council for licence in appropriate application forms.

3.2.8 All EHOs on premises inspection shall ensure that solid waste collection storage, transportation and disposal are carried out in a manner to minimize body contact and prevent the transmission of communicable disease.

3.3 RESPONSIBILITIES OF WASTE GENERATOR AND COLLECTORS

3.3a GENERAL REQUIREMENT

i. Only licensed waste collectors are to collect and convey refuse for disposal. The generator himself is however allowed to convey his own waste for disposal

3.4 REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PREMISE

i. Waste generators should actively practice waste recycling at source. Waste should first be segregated into recyclables and non-recyclables. The non-recyclables should where possible be further segregated into incinerable waste and non-incinerable waste.

ii. Each category of waste must be contained in proper and identifiable receptacles such as bins, contains or ags

3.5 REQUIREMENTS FOR BUSINESS PREMISES (INCLUDING FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS) AND PREMISES HAVING BIN CENTRES
i. All waste must be stored in approved containers or receptacles with good fitting covers. Such containers or receptacles must be kept within the premises or in proper bin centre.
ii. containers for organic waste must be washed regularly to prevent smell nuisance and fly breeding. The bin centres must also be cleansed regularly.

3.6 REQUIREMENT FOR PREVENT DOMESTIC PREMISES

i. All waste from households must be contained in proper plastic garbage bags.

ii. Bagged waste shall not be placed outside the premises overnight but should only be brought out from the premises before 9 a.m. for collection on predetermined collection days.

iii. bagged waste may be contained in proper refuse bins fitted with covers. however, such bins when emptied must be kept within the premises and not along roads or pavements.

3.7 Liquid Waste/Sewage

3.7.1 All liquid waste including wastewater shall be treated to a level as specified in the relevant guidelines and standard for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria (FEPA) 1991 or as may be amended.

3.7.2 Only a licensed sewage collector with approved vehicle or vessels shall transport sewage/wastewater.

3.7.3 The Environmental Health Authority shall ensure safe disposal of all sewage and wastewater in an approved disposal facility.

3.7.4 Every premises shall have suitable and adequate number of latrines/toilets as contained in the Policy Guidelines on excreta and sewage management of the Federal Ministry of Environment, 2005.

3.7.5 All such sanitary facility in any public places shall have signs displayed in strategic locations within the premises indicating their location to the general public. Such facility (ies) shall be kept in an hygiene state at all times; providing adequate privacy for users.

3.7.6 The regular collection and emptying of septic tanks and other sources of sewage shall only be carried out by licensed operators. The equipment used shall conform to applicable government regulations. For this purpose, intending operator shall apply for licence in the appropriate application form.

3.7.7 The Environmental Health Officer responsible for an area shall in collaboration with other stakeholder designate a temporary disposal site for sewage (where no treatment plant exists). With the registration of dislodging companies, it shall be mandatory for such companies to develop a plan for the construction of a sewage treatment facility (Sewage farm) in the LGA or use the facility if it exists in an adjourning LGA. The emptying of sludge in any are not designated for such a purpose shall attract stiff penalties including prosecution and possible loss of operational permit.

4.0 Food and Control

4.1 It is the process of handling food in hygienic way from processing to consumption in a wholesome manner so as to ensure its quality and to protect public health. One hardly hears of this very important sanitary obligation in our various cities. Food hygiene is an environmental health requirement. The activities under this function include the inspection of food preparation premises prior to commencement of operation, licensing of the food premises after satisfaction of the minimum requirement for such a licence, safe transportation of food, ensuring that the food vendors are medically fit to handle food meant for public consumption. All these activities constitute environmental health function.

4.4.1 Food shall be produced, processed, transported, stored and distributed in a manner so as to avoid contamination and to protect the health of the consumer.

4.4.2 Cooked food shall be served hot, and not below 600C

4.4.3 All Food Establishment operator shall maintain a valid permit.

4.4.4 All opening in food premises shall be screened to prevent flies and other vermin and all the external doors shall be made self-closing

4.4.5 Every Food premises shall have adequate toilet facility and/or access to toilet facility within a reasonable distance from the premises.

4.4.6 Wash-hand that allow for easy cleansing shall be provided for individual use.

4.4.7 Wiping cloths/hand towels shall be provided for individual customers and where not possible disposal wiping materials shall be provided.

4.4.8 A food premises shall have adequate potable water supply at all times.

4.4.9 Every food handler shall maintain high level of personal hygiene at all times.

4.4.10 Every food operator, handler including vendor shall be medically examined and issued with Medical Certificate of Fitness, renewable every six (6) months and show evidence of attendance of approved training.

4.4.11 The owner(s) of a food premises including mobile food unit shall ensure wholesomeness of food in such premises or unit and assume responsibility that the establishment operates in full compliance with all applicable environmental health regulations and laws.

4.4.12 Bread and other such confectioneries shall not have the bakery without being wrapped and properly labeled.

4.4.13 Vehicle used for transporting bread and other confectionaries shall be painted white both in the interior and exterior of such vehicle. The name and address of such bakery and other distinguishing marks shall be written in a green lettering in line with Appendix 4.

4.4.14 All ready to eat foods including confectionaries shall not be exposed to contamination.

4.4.15 No cooked or ready to eat food shall be carried or served from a container not approved by the Environmental Health Authority of the area.

5.0 Pest and Vector Control

5.1 Pest and vector control is aimed at reducing man-pest/vector-contact so as to maintain and promote public health. therefore, every occupier in every premises ahll take all measures to exclude pest and vector from such premises so as to minimize man-pest/vector-contact.

5.2 Every premises shall be rid of pest of public health importance.

5.3 Every commercial premises including schools, offices, hotels, hospitals, ware-houses, and hostels, etc and such other similar facilities shall be disinfested on quarterly (every three months) basis but al least once every six months in accordance with NEHPR 2007.

5.4 Every premises so disinfested shall be issued with a certificate of disinfections as in appendix 6 duly signed by the Environmnetal Health Officer who carried out supervised such disinfestations using the appropriate form. A report shall also be issued to the client stating the target pest treated as well as the chemicals used.

5.5 Any person or company wishing to engage in the business of Public Health Pest Control shall apply to and obtain operation licence from the Council using the form in appendix 7.

5.6 Any person or company granted a licence shall obtain an Operational Permit from Environmental Health Authority of the Local Government in which he intends to operate, and for that purpose, pay a prescribed fee.

5.7 Control measures for pest control shall be as contained in section 7 of the Policy Guidelines on Pest and Vector control 2005, issued by Federal Ministry of Environment, or any other provision in that behalf that may be in force.

5.8 No person or company shall be allowed to display, sell or distribute any pesticide unless those approved by authorized Government agency.

5.9 Any person wishing to sell or display for sale such chemical shall obtain a permit issued by the appropriate authority.

6.0 Environmental Health Aspect of Housing

6.1 The purpose of housing is to minimize physical and biological hazards in the environment and to promote the health and well-being of the inhabitants. Houses shall therefore be constructed, maintained and occupied in a manner as to ensure optimal physical, physiological and psychological needs of the occupants.

6.2 Every premises shall be used only for purpose(s) for which it was approved.

6.3 Every premises shall be maintained in such a way as to prevent structural defects or occurrence of nuisance(s).

6.4 Every room in a premises shall be built to an approved standard and in such a way as to allow for natural lighting and ventilation.

6.5 Every premises shall be built so as to allow for the minimum open space between existing building as contained in relevant laws and regulations.

6.6 Every room in a premises shall be adequately ventilated and for this purpose the window(s) opening directly outside shall not be less than one-eight(?) of the floor area.

6.7 Every owner of new premise shall apply for and obtain a certificate of fitness for Habitation as in schedule 1 of EHPR 2007 before occupation (Appendix 8). This certificate shall be issued on presentation of a satisfactory report of inspection of such premises by a licensed EHO. The certificate shall be issued by the Environmental Health Authority in charge of the area where the premises is situated and for this purpose pay a prescribed fee.

6.8 Every premises shall be inspected and issued with certificate of fitness for Continued Habitation (Appendix 9) of certification of fitness for continues uses (Appendix 9) as the case may be once every three years in line with NEHPR 2007.

6.9 No alteration of existing premises shall be carried out without the knowledge of the EHO in charge of the area.

6.10 Every EHO shall enforce the provisions of the following legislation as authorized under the relevant sections of NEHPR 2007 in his area of jurisdiction:

i. The National Environmental Protection (Effluent Limitation Regulation 1991)

ii. The National Environmental Protection (Pollution Abatement in Industries and facilities Generating Wastes) Regulation 1991.

iii. National Environmental Protection Management of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Regulations 1991.

iv. Such other applicable or related laws and regulations.

7.0 SANITATION OF HOSPITALITY, RECREATION AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

7.1 The construction of hotel, motel, recreational facilities, saloons, beauty saloon, lodging, and boarding, school, hospital, etc and other similar facilities shall conform to the standards and guidelines as prescribed by the relevant government authority. Accordingly, every such facilities shall;

i. Be suitably sited as to eliminate nuisances and prevent contamination;
ii. Have available of adequate water supply for cleaning
iii. Have adequate drainage facilities
iv. Be constructed of durable materials to protect patrons from any hazard and exposure to the elements; and
v. Have facilities for maintenance of sanitation such as cleaning and elimination of harborages of vermin.

7.2 Such establishment shall only be opened for public patronage after the presentation of a health status report for the premises duly signed by a licensed EHO. The Environmental Health Authority of the LGA where the premises is situated shall on acceptance of such a Health Status Report issued either a certificate of fitness for use, certificate of fitness for habitation, or certificate of fitness for continued habitation as the case may be to the owner of such a premises.

7.3 All such establishments shall ensure provision of adequate water supply, toilet and bath facilities in accordance with standards set in the National Sanitation Policy 2005.

7.4 Quarterly and or periodic insect and vermin control and other sanitary measures shall be undertaken to exterminate vectors of disease.

7.5 All persons employed whose jobs deal directly with foods in such establishments shall obtain a health certificate of fitness from a government health facility.

7.6 The storage, preparation and serving of food to customers shall adhere to basic hygiene rules.

7.7 Customers shall be provided with clean line such as bed sheets, pillow cases, towels and napkins with daily replacement of same whether used or not where boarding and lodging is provided.

7.8 Swimming pool and bathing places shall be operated for public use after a sanitary permit has been obtained from the Environmental Health Authority of the LGA where it is situated after a satisfactory comprehensive sanitary inspection and report by a licensed Environmental Health Officer.

7.9 In every swimming pool used the general public, there shall be routine water quality analysis carried out in a laboratory certified by the institute of Public Analyst of Nigeria at least once every quarter. The report of such analyses shall be displayed in a conspicuous place around the swimming pool. There shall be a conspicuous warning to be general public on the presence of artificial or natural hazards in and around the swimming pool.

7.10 Every person or company wishing to establish a park, camp, picnic ground rest area, motor park, bus/train terminal,, or petrol services station shall present a health status report for the premises duly signed by a licensed EHO. Such establishment shall only be opened for public patronage after the Environmental Health Authority of the LGA where the premises is situated shall on acceptance of such a Health Status Report issued either a certificate of fitness for use or for continues use, certificate of fitness for habitation, or certificate of fitness for continued habitation as the case may be to the owner of such a premises.

7.11 Such a place or facility shall be provided with adequate open space, ventilation, waiting areas, potable water, means of excreta/sewage disposal and solid waste management system. The entire premises shall be kept clean at all times.

7.12 The operator shall ensure that sale of foodstuffs in such establishment(s) conforms to the provisions of applicable guidelines, regulations and rules.

7.13 Any person or company wishing to establish night clubs, bars and other similar establishments shall present a health status report for the premises duly signed by a licensed EHO. Such establishment shall only be opened for public patronage after the Environmental Health Authority of the LGS where the premises is situated has on acceptance of such a Health Status Report issued either a certificate of fitness for use or for continues use, certificate of fitness for habitation, or certificate of fitness for continued habitation as the case may be to the owner of such a premises.

7.14 These establishments and their premises shall be kept clean at all times, and provided with adequate potable water, toilet facility and facility for water collection and disposal of waste.

7.15 There shall be no private rooms or separate compartments for public use except those used for lavatories, dressing rooms, bars and kitchens.

8.0 Cleaning Services:

8.1 All premises shall be kept clean at all times. All premises requiring the services of a cleaning service provider shall engage only a licensed operator.

8.2 All companies or persons engaged or intended to engage in the business of cleaning services shall apply and obtain a valid operational license from the Council and such license shall be renewed every three years in line with EHPR 2007.

8.3 The class of license issued shall be in accordance with the categorisation in appendixes 11. The minimum equipment for the practice shall be as appendix 12. For companies requiring higher class of license (Classes A or B), the minimum equipment required shall be doubled for class B and triple for class A.

8.4 All operational staff, equipment, materials of such company shall meet the minimum basic requirement as set out in the appendix to those guidelines and as shall be reviewed from time to time.

8.5 All operational staff shall while involved in the handling of wastes, wear appropriate personal protective materials, including clothing, footwear’s, mouth and nose mask, apron etc.

8.6 All staff involved in handling of wastes shall be given basic training on the hazards associated with their work. A written statement giving full explanation of the hazards shall be interpreted to the worker in a language he/she understands. Such worker shall sign or thumb prints an acknowledgement of this explanation.

8.7 Any company involved in dumping of waste collected from clients premises at unlawful locations would have her permit suspended or licence withdrawn and shall be made to face prosecution.

9.0 Pollution Control:

9.1 The operator of a business or activity likely to be a source of noise pollution shall obtain a special permit from the Environmental Health Officer in charge of the LGA after a satisfactory comprehensive sanitary inspection report by a licensed Environmental Health Officer.

9.2 Environmental Noise shall at all time not be above eighty (90) decibel and no equipment shall be kept in a manner or condition as to produce noise that will be injurious to health.

9.3 In the issuance of such a permit, the Environmental Health Officer shall consider the activities involved and the need for controlling environmental noise in our neighbourhoods in granting such a permit.

9.4 All “one off” noise-producing activity such as parties, crusade, and disco shall be held around residential district area only with a permit from the Environmental Health Officer in charge of the LGA.

9.5 Every owner of a motor vehicle or motor cycle shall keep and maintain such a vehicle or motorcycle in a functional state that it does not cause environmental pollution as contained in the relevant regulation.

9.6 All industries shall ensure that emissions from their processes are within allowable limit as specified in the applicable regulations and laws. For this purpose, industries are required to install appropriate air sampling and monitoring equipment within their premises.

9.7 All waste water and effluent shall be collected, treated and disposed off in a manner that it will not constitute danger to health and environment as contained in the National Environmental Protection (Effluent Limitation) Regulation 1991; and the National Environmental Protection (Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Wastes) Regulation 1991; as well as other regulations.

9.8 Radioactive materials/wastes shall be handled, used and stored in a manner that shall minimize hazards to Public Health and the environment. This shall be in line with guidelines issued from time to time by National Nuclear Regulatory Authority.

9.9 No radioactive materials shall be stored within a 100 metres radius of any source of drinking water.

10.0 Environmental Health Information Management System (EHIMS)

10.1 Environmental health information management system in designed to collect, collate, analyses, interpret, present and report environmental health information to support evidence-based environmental health services.

10.2 Every EH practitioners shall ensure that data generated in the cause of his activities is stored in a retrievable manner and feed into the national EHIS. Generally, the data will flow community to LGA to state and finally to the Federal level.

11.0 PROCEDURE FOR INSPECTION AND ABATEMENT OF NUISANCE

11.1 A nuisance is any act, omission, place or thing, which is or may be adjudged dangerous to life or injurious to health or property.

11.2 A registered EHO, shall while on duly have powers to enter any premises, inspect any premises, abate nuisances, obtain order to seal premises, arrest and prosecute environmental health offenders, condemn items unfit for human consumption, and enforce all environmental health laws, regulations, policies and other related laws, regulations.

11.3 Local Government Areas may grant concessions to any company licenses by the Council to provide sanitary premises inspection services within the LGAs jurisdiction fro the purpose of providing services in the areas of sanitary inspection of premises.

11.4 He shall also assess and ensure that all documents, needing his assessments such as Premises Based Environmental Health Record Book (Appendix 13), certificate of fitness for Habitation, certificate of fitness for continue Habitation, Certificate of fitness for continue use, etc are produced on demand and are valid as at the time of such inspection.

11.5 Where an EHO is satisfied of the existence if a nuisance, he shall serve an abatement notice (Appendix 14) on the person who caused or continue to cause the nuisance to occur/exist or on the occupier or the owner of the premises, as the case may be specifying what action needs to be taken by such person to abate the nuisance within a specified time and or ensure that such a nuisance does not reoccur in such premises.

11.6 It shall be the duty of the EHO to do all things and to take all measures, including causing the issuance of nuisance order, prohibition order or closing or a combination of such orders to ensure that a nuisance which exists is abated or a nuisance which existed having been abated does not reoccur in that premises in future.

12.0 PROCEDURE FOR REGISTRATION/LICENSING OF VARIOUS PRACTICES PROVIDED FOR IN THESE GUIDELINES.

12.1 Any individual or company wishing to engage or already engaged in any of the service area covered by these guidelines is encouraged to continue in such business after due licensing by the Council. This regularization must be carried out within the time limit provided by the council.

12.2 Such enterprise must be registered as a company in Nigeria in line with the Companies and Allied Matters Act 1990.

12.3 The company is the required to obtain an application form from the council and complete such application form and return to the Council with full details information as required by the Council. There shall be payment in bank draft for the cost of application which shall be detailed in the application form and other support documents.

12.4 The Council shall engage the services of a licensed Environmental Health Officer as a consultant to visit the applicant company with a view to interviewing the proprietor(s) and take an inventory of equipment available vis-à-vis submissions made to the Council.

12.5 After a report has been submitted by the consultant, a decision is made by the Council either to register such a company or not in the area of Environmental Health practice applied for. The company is informed of council decision within a maximum of 90 days from the date of receipt of such an application.

12.6 If the Company’s application is approved, the company will then be required to pay her registration fee and on payment, a certificate of registration shall be issued to the company. The certificate shall be renewed every three years in line with EHPR 2007.

12.7 If the application is rejected, the company will equally be informed accordingly and given the reason for the rejection of such application. Such a company may re-apply in future.

12.8 A company may hold licenses for multiple services provision as long as it has the expertise in such areas. A company may hold licenses in such sewage disposal facilities, Public Health Pest Control, Cleaning Services, and Sanitary inspection of Premises.

Appendix 1
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA
Colour Code for Waste Sorting and Segregation (CCWSS)

Colour Category Component of waste


Black Non-infectious wastes All paper, packaging materials
including cartons, bottles, food
remnants, rags

Yellow Infectious wastes Gloves, dressings, blood, body fluids,
used specimen containers and similar
wastes from both healthcare and
research facilities

Red Highly Infectious wastes Anatomical waste, pathological waste

Brown Chemical Formaldehyde, batteries, photographic
chemicals, solvents, organic chemicals,
inorganic chemical

Yellow with Radioactive wastes Any solid, liquid, or
radioactive label pathological waste, contaminated with
radioactive isotopes of any kind




Green Recyclable wastes Glass waste metal, cans, plastic
wastes, plastic cans cups, polythene etc

Organic waste Organic wastes including garden wastes,
leaves, shrub, tree truck, weed, flowers
etc

Appendix 2
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA
Classes of Waste Collection Licence
Class of licence Waste covered

A-Toxic industrial waste and effluents, Health care waste and other dangerous and hazardous substances

B Sludge from water treatment plants, grease interceptors, water-seal latrins, sewage treatment plants, septic tanks or other types of sewage systems. Waste from sanitary conveniences in ships and aircraft.

C Food and other putrescible waste from domestic, trade and industrial premises, markets and food centres, construction debris, tree trunks, discarded furniture, appliances, wooden create, and other bulky items destined for disposal .

Appendix 3

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA
Minimum Waste Collection Materials And Equipment
S/N Materials Minimum Nos. required
1. Brooms, Brushes, Rakes 50 each

2. Dust bins 120 litres 1000 1000
240 litres 1000 1000
1200 litres 500 500
1500 litres (Dinosaur bin)6 6
5000 litres (mammoth bin)4 4

3. Polyethylene bags Various sizes 10,000 pieces

4. Wheel barrows 10

5. Compacting trucks or side loading collection trucks 2

6. Pail loader 2

7. Tippers 2

8. Generator Minimum of 3 KVA 1

9. Pick up truck 2

10. Shovel 20
11. Dust pan 50

12. Tractor 1

Office Facilities
• Adequate office space
• Adequate storage space
• Adequate cloakroom
• Adequate water supply.

Appendix 4

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA
Labeling of Vehicles and Similar Equipment









Appendix 5
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA
Classes of Waste Collection Licence
Class of licence Waste covered

A- Industrial incinerators
B Sanitary landfill operators of waste recycling plants
C Sewage and waste water treatment plant


Appendix 6
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA
certificate of disinfestations/fumigation
No: ................
STATE...................................... LGA........................................................
I certify that the premises belonging to.....................................................
................................................................................................................
Situated at No:.......................................................................... has been
Disinfested/fumigated by me on:...............day of:.........20........it is my considered opinion that the building(s) treated within the said premises is/are rid of pests of public health importance.

Name of Environmental Health Officer issuing the certificate ...................
Annual license Reg. No: ...........................................................................
Signature/Professional Reg. Stamp .........................................................
Issued this ................... day of .................................... 20 ......................
This certificate is valid till ........................................................................
................................................................................................................

--------------------------------- --------------------------------
Signature of Environmental Health Officer Company Stamp
S/N NATURE OF PREMISES
1 Residential Premise
2 Office Accommodation
3 Hotel/Restaurant/Eatery
4 Warehouse
5 Hospital/Clinic
6 School/Educational Institution
7 Camps/Temporary Shelter/Mobile Premise
8 Ships/Aircraft/Train/Buses
9 Garden/Parks/Recreation Centres
10 Others (specify)

Appendix 7
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA
Minimum Requirements for Pest Control License
(see environmental Health Practice Regulation 2007)

i. Knapsack Sprayer 3
ii. Fogging Machine 2
iii. Swing fog Machine 1

Office and Facilities

i. Adequate office space
ii. Bath room/toilet
iii. Cloakroom
iv. Adequate water supply.

Personnel
Any pest control outfit shall have a minimum of 2 spray men. The head of operation of the company must be registered by the Council.

Training of employees

The pest control operator shall ensure that all his personnel are fully briefed and trained so that they are conversant with the following:
i. The requirements of this regulation and such other similar regulations.
ii. Safe handling of pesticides and equipment
iii. Safe use of Personal Protective Devices such as face mask, hand gloves, eye goggles, boots, overall, nose mask, ear muffs, helmet.
iv. List of approved pesticides.

Handling of Pesticides and Safety of Spray men

i. In addition to provisions of section 10 of the Policy Guidelines on Pest and Vector control issued by Federal Ministry of Environment, 2005, the use of all chemical pesticides for pest control shall be done with extreme caution.
ii. All chemicals to be used shall conform with specification as contained in section 8.3 of the Policy Guideline on Pest and Vector control issued by Federal Ministry of Environment, 2005 and in Schedule X of this regulation.
iii. No pesticides as contained in Schedule XI of this regulation shall be used for pest control.
(a) Every pest control outfit shall conform with provision of schedule IX
iv. Facilities must be provided for first aid treatment of spray men and cases of accident or for prompt medical attention to a recognized hospital
v. Spray men and the head of operation must produce medical report of fitness once every six (6) months from a recognized medical practitioners.
vi. All equipment used for formulation of pesticides shall be properly washed and cleansed, and stored in such a way that would not constitute danger of health of the public.

Disposal of Killed Pest

i. Killed pests shall not be disposed of as part of the domestic wastes but shall be considered as special wastes and be disposed of as such.
ii. Killed pests including rodents, cockroaches, etc shall be disposed of by burial under the ground or incinerated
iii. Such disposal shall not be done within a distance of 30m to a source of ground or surface supply.

Responsibilities of Clients

1. Owners of premises infested with pest of public health importance must report such infestation to the Environmental Health Authority.

Appendix 8
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA
CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS FOR HABITATION (CFH)

STATE...................................... LGA........................................................
This is certify that the premises belonging Mr./Mrs. ................................
................................................................................................................
Situated at No:........................ has been inspected and found to be fit for
Habitation based on report of inspection carried out on: .................... day of ........................, 20 .......................
Name of Inspecting Environmental Health Officer....................................
Annual license Reg. No: ...........................................................................
Issued this ................... day of .................................... 20 ......................
This certificate is valid till ........................................................................
Name of Inspecting Environmental Health Officer....................................
Annual license Reg. No: ...........................................................................
Signature/Office Stamp ...........................................................................



Appendix 9
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA
CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS FOR CONTINUED HABITATION (CFCH)

STATE...................................... LGA........................................................
This is certify that the premises belonging to Mr./Mrs. ............................
................................................................................................................
Situated at No:........................ has been inspected and found to be fit for
Continued Habitation based on report of inspection carried out on: .................... day of ........................, 20 .......................
Name of Inspecting Environmental Health Officer....................................
Annual license Reg. No: ...........................................................................
Issued this ................... day of .................................... 20 ......................
This certificate is valid till ........................................................................
Name of Inspecting Environmental Health Officer....................................
Annual license Reg. No: ...........................................................................
Signature/Office Stamp ...........................................................................





Appendix 10
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA
CERTIFICATION OF FITNESS FOR CONTINUED USE OF PREMISES

State………………………………………LGA…………………………………..
This is to certify that the premises belonging to…………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
Situated at No:……………………………has been inspected and found to be fit for Continued Use as (state purpose of use of premises)
……………………………………………………………………………………….
Based no report of inspection carried out on …… day of ……200……
Name of inspecting Environmental Health officer………………………
Annual Licence Reg. No……………………………………………………..
Issued this ………….day of …………………….20…………………………
This Certification is valid till:…………………………………………………
Name of Environmental Health officer issuing certificate ……………..
Annual Licence Reg. No………………………………………………………
Signature/ Official Stamp:……………………………………………………


Appendix 11
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA
Commercial Cleaning Services Provider (Categorization).
Criteria
• Floor space
• Nature of waste
• Type of establishment

Class A
• Officer and structure with total floor space above 350 sq. metres and above
• Three (3) star Hotel and above classified by Ministry of Tourism
• All teaching hospitals, Research Institution, Specialist Hospitals
• Federal medical Centres
• General Hospitals
• Private hospitals that render services in these categories
• Tertiary educational institutions
• Industries that general hazardous waste as specified in S.I. 15: National Environmental Protection Management of Solid and Hazardous Waste Regulations, 1991.
• Airports
• Stadium
• Trade Fair Centre
• Sea Ports
• Any facility generating waste not covered in Classes B or C

CLASS B
• Offices and structure with total space of between 100 and 350 sq. meters
• Two star Hotels as classified by Ministry of Tourism
• All other categories of health facilities snot listed in A above.
• All secondary schools and other educational institutions with students’ population 0f 500 and above
• Public places like streets,

CLASS C
• Offices and structure with total floor space of less than 100 sq. meters
• Shops
• Educational institution of students’ population below 500
• One star Hotels as classified by Ministry of Tourism
• Motor parks, Markets



Appendix 12
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA MINIMUM EQUIPMENT FOR CLEANING SERVICES PROVIDER*
S/N Materials Minimum Nos. Required

1. High Powered Vacuum Cleaners . 3
2 Upholsteries- Cleaners 2
3 Rotary Machines 3
4 Host Extraction Carpet Cleaners 2
5 Cradle Machine For High Building (Glass and Marble). Optional 2
6 Telescope Poles. Optional 2
7 Window, floor Squeezers. 2
8 H-Bro Buffing Machine (1600RPL or higher) 2
9 Blower- Machine 2
10 Lawn- Mower 2
11 Car Park Sweepers (Motorize). Optional 2
12 Sponges Applicator 2

Office Facilities
• Adequate office space
• Adequate storage space
• Adequate Bathroom/toilet
• Adequate cloakroom
• Adequate water supply

For Class “C” License holders only. Class “B” & “A” holders are required to own equipment in higher number and sophistication according to the license desired.














Appendix 13
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE NIGERIA CERTIFICATION Premises- Based Environmental Services Record Book/ Register
Date Nuisances Found Action Taken Further Action Name/ Sign of EHO
Recommended Inspection















Appendix 14
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICE CERTIFICATE
ABATEMENT NOTICE
To…………………………………………………………………………………...
Of …………………………………………………………………………………
You are required to abate within………days the nuisance at………….
Consisting of………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
And for that purpose to………………………………………………………...
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..and to prevent the recurrence of the nuisance.
Dated this………………day of …………20………Time ……….am/pm

………………………………..
Environmental Health officer.

I hereby certify that a copy of the above notice was served by me on the…………day of ………….20……..at….am/pm by being (state how served)…………………………………………………………………………….
In the presence of (Mr/Mrs/ Chief/ Miss)……………………as witness
………………………. …………………………
Name of witness Environmental Health officer.









LIST OF APPENDIX
APPENDIX No TITLE
Appendix 1 Colour code for waste sorting and segregation (CCWSS)
Appendix 2 Classes of waste collection license
Appendix 3 Minimum waste collection Materials & Equipment
Appendix 4 Application for registration or renewal of waste collection operator’s license
Appendix 5 Classes of waste disposal licenses
Appendix 6 Certificate of disinfestations/fumigation
Appendix 7 Minimum requirement for pest control license
Appendix 8 Certificate of fitness for habitation
Appendix 9 Certificate of fitness for continued habitation
Appendix 10 Certificate of fitness for continued
Appendix 11 Cleaning services providers categorization
Appendix 12 Minimum equipment for cleaning service provider
Appendix 13 Premises Based Environmental Health Record Book
Appendix 14 Abatement Notice


LIST OF ABBREVIATION
EHO Environmental Health Officer
EHPAN Environmental Health Practitioners Association of Nigeria
EHIMS Environmental Health Information Management System
NEHPR National Environmental Health Practice Regulations 2007.